An IQ test is a type of test that is meant to assess a person's cognitive and intellectual abilities. French psychologist, Alfred Binet started the tradition of intelligent testing back in 1881. The test was originally designed to identify children who were too slow to be in the ordinary school system. Binet's definition of an intelligent child was a child who could perform better than his or her same-age peers. Many psychologists and education practitioners today, have continued with Binet's tradition of IQ testing and developed tests which assess more than one range of intellectual abilities. The usual focus is on verbal reasoning, abstract and visual analysis, mathematics and memory.

With the current approach, a person's IQ score is determined by comparing his or her performance with the others who took the same test. Those who have scored better that most people who took the test are considered to possess high intellectual abilities. On the other hand, those who have scored lower than most people are considered to have a low level of intellectual ability.